Project Management

IntroductionQuality | SW Quality | Scope | Scope of project management:  DCM | IEEE Software Quality Standards | SW Cost  | Cost Estimate|  Cost Management | Performance metrics, using EVA jargon | EVA History EVA 

 | Procurement | Risk | | Risk AnalysisRisk Modeling | Requirements EngineeringMonte Carlo Simulation | | Requirements Management

| Project Management Framework  | |Resource Loading Example | Project Management HeuristicsProcurement Management

Continuous Improvement Process |

Multimedia  Resources |   

TUTORIALSHow to use MS ProjectMS Project Tutorials -= VideosProjectLibre Videos | Oracle Primavera Tutorials

Comparison of project management tools

 System Design - The five major components of a system design are:  User Interface, Data Design, Process Design, Communications and Human Capital

Systems Analysis

Feasibility Studies



PROJECT MANAGEMENT TRUISMSCoding Standards | Information Technology Standards |

Creating a Project Management Communications Plan - click here 

LINKS   - see also






I continue to argue that despite claims to the contrary contained in the many thousands of books written on the subject, conceptually, project management is easy. Most adults, for example,  have already experienced a number of projects, from obtaining a degree, to buying a house, getting a promotion and so on. 

The real question is whether the outcome of the project was due to serendipity, to circumstances or accident – that is, whether we managed the project, or whether the project managed us.  Not much different from time management.  Time management implies that we have discretionary time to manage, for instance.

Project management  is as easy as DCM:  Define, Communicate and Manage.   More often than not, the difficulty is in the specialized jargon, such as what is used in the Earned Value Analysis (EVA).


Scope of project management:  DCM
Scope management video:


To be fair, it is true that the devil is in the details.  However, once the DCM concept has been fully understood, the details can be filled in using a number of project management frameworks, such as the one below


Project Management Framework


Followed by measuring, measuring, measuring, and  establishing the appropriate performance metrics.


Performance metrics, using EVA jargon


Project:   A project is an undertaking requiring concerted effort.   In project management circles, a project is usually defined as a temporary effort.  

Project management:  BASICS: Triple Constraintfive different processes |  core competencies  |  Competing Projects Criteria | Why projects FailMS Project Management resources | Other Project Management Links




Cost Management


Insufficient information - Traditional management comparing budget to actual

Earned value analysis (EVA) - keep track not only of the budget and actuals, but also the value of the work performed, and left to do.

While there is no universal agreement for the various types of budgets, I like to use the following


ROM (rough order of magnitude)  



    -50% to +50% ( can be as high as +75%

  -10% to +25%

 - 10% to +10








Procurement Management







Earned value analysis (EVA)  History



Project management.  According to A Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge —2000 Edition, [Project Management Institute (PMI®) December 2000], project management is the application of knowledge, skills, tools and techniques to a broad range of activities in order to meet the requirements of the particular project.  PMI further outlines five different processes and core competencies required for effective project management - see figure below




Resource Loading Example



Resource Loading Example





 Project Management Core Skills




The Triple Constraint

The triple constraint consists of Cost, Performance/Quality & Budget.  In other words, the total cost of a given project is a function of the scope, the schedule and the desired performance and or quality - How many times have  we been asked to expedite a project, while  sticking to the original scope, budget and cost - the pictures below show that such requests are at best senseless.


Original Project Scope An expedited Project may require changes in Scope, performance and or cost - something has to give




Feasibility Studies




Technology feasibility

The assessment is based on an outline design of system requirements in terms of Input, Processes, Output, Fields, Programs, and Procedures. This can be quantified in terms of volumes of data, trends, frequency of updating, etc. in order to estimate whether the new system will perform adequately or not. This means that feasibility is the study of the based in outline.

Economic feasibility

Economic analysis is the most frequently used method for evaluating the effectiveness of a new system. More commonly known as cost/benefit analysis, the procedure is to determine the benefits and savings that are expected from a candidate system and compare them with costs. If benefits outweigh costs, then the decision is made to design and implement the system.

Activity Based or Cost Based Study: It is important to identify cost and benefit factors. Cost and benefits can be categorized into the following categories. Basically it is an analysis of the costs to be incurred in the system and benefits derivable out of the system. In a broad sense the costs can be divided into two types 1. Development costs 2. Operating costs

Time Based Study: Contrast to the manual system management can generate any report just by the click of a mouse

Legal feasibility

Determines whether the proposed system conflicts with legal requirements, e.g. a data processing system must comply with the local Data Protection Acts.

Operational feasibility

Is a measure of how well a proposed system solves the problems, and takes advantages of the opportunities identified during scope definition and how it satisfies the requirements identified in the requirements analysis phase of system development.

Schedule feasibility

A project will fail if it takes too long to be completed before it is useful. Typically this means estimating how long the system will take to develop, and if it can be completed in a given time period using some methods like payback period. Schedule feasibility is a measure of how reasonable the project timetable is. Given our technical expertise, are the project deadlines reasonable? Some projects are initiated with specific deadlines. You need to determine whether the deadlines are mandatory or desirable.

Misc feasibility issues

Market and real estate feasibility
Market Feasibility Study typically involves testing geographic locations for a real estate development project, and usually involves parcels of real estate land. Developers often conduct market studies to determine the best location within a jurisdiction, and to test alternative land uses for a given parcels. Jurisdictions often require developers to complete feasibility studies before they will approve a permit application for retail, commercial, industrial, manufacturing, housing, office or mixed-use project. Market Feasibility takes into account the importance of the business in the selected area.

Resource feasibility
This involves questions such as how much time is available to build the new system, when it can be built, whether it interferes with normal business operations, type and amount of resources required, dependencies, etc. Contingency and mitigation plans should also be stated here.

Cultural feasibility
In this stage, the project's alternatives are evaluated for their impact on the local and general culture. For example, environmental factors need to be considered and these factors are to be well known. Further an enterprise's own culture can clash with the results of the project.



Why Projects Fail

According to a study published by the Standish Group roughly 50% of all projects costing over $1 million dollars, fail to fully meet the scope of the project as defined by the triple constraint, mostly due for failure to establish SMART  (Specific, Measurable, Attainable, Realistic, Time-bound) goals.  Surprisingly however, at the top of the list is failure to involve users and lack of executive management support.  Below is a summary of reasons why projects fail.


  • User Involvement                                19%

  • Executive Management Support          16%

  • Clear Requirements                           15%

  • Proper Planning                                   11%

  • Realistic Expectations                          10%

  • Smaller Project Milestones                   9%

  • Competent Staff                                    8%

  • Ownership                                            6%

  • Clear Vision and Objectives                    3%

  • Hardworking, Focus Staff                        3%







Project Management World Today

This is an on-line publication that contains notices, reports, news and information related to project management from around the world.

International Project Management Association

The IPMA is a nonprofit organization based in the U.K. It promotes PM through its global membership network of national PM associations.

Project Management Center

This site is dedicated to those with an investment in PM. The site brings information together to cut back on Web cruising and provides practical help. It offers the latest news, articles, software, case studies, links, etc.


This PM Community connects you to others facing the same PM challenges you do every day. You can share ideas, compare notes, ask for help, find out the latest news, purchase materials and access other relevant project management sites.


The ProjectZone is a community of technology project leaders discovering, learning, inventing, and teaching each other better ways to lead and manage teams and projects. The material on this site is written by project leaders for project leaders as a volunteer effort, and reflects their experiences and opinions.

NewGrange Center for Project Management

The NewGrange Center for Project Management was started in early 1997 as a nonprofit professional organization. Its mission is to further the discussion of project management as a professional discipline. The focus is a hands-on, practical approach to project management to determine what really works, why it works, and how to replicate it consistently.

The Project Manager's Resource Center

ALLPM is a site for Information Technology (IT) project management information and resources. It is a clearinghouse of discussion forums, resource links, conference and seminar listings, news releases, contract awards and more.


This site is an online guide for anyone who must plan, implement and complete a commercial project. Project-Manager is a learning experience. Here you can get professional advice. Upgrade personal skills. Exchange ideas. Above all, get your project up and running on time and within budget. The site also has links to various Product Depots where you may source equipment, machinery and supplies.






Planning IS staffing – Tech Republic

This Gartner presentation offers help with planning for the IS department of the future.

Download this plan for staffing your IT department

RFQ template for professional services automation (PSA) software, can help you diagnose your clients' PSA software needs, estimate costs, and prepare the way for implementation.  Download this RFQ template for PSA software

End-user computing best practices – Tech Republic

This report outlines key best practices for equipment standardization, lockdown, asset management and policies enforcement

Gartner Institute Presentation: Build master IT project managers  - Tech Republic .  Learn how to build master IT project managers.

IT documentation worksheets

Are you preparing to document the details of your infrastructure and procedures? This workbook download will give you a head start on entering and organizing the information you need.

IT glossary explains computer terms in basic English

Use this list of basic hardware and software terms in your introductory classes to help new users master the fundamentals of computing

Project management advice—free for the listening , Apr 24, 2001,  Jerry Loza

Thirty percent of all IT projects fail. That is one of the opening considerations included in a great audio program being offered to TechRepublic members by for free. The Essentials of Project Management, which is a part of the Gartner Group Talking Technology series, is a 42-minute program available over the Internet

IT Project Management Research Findings

Ted Smith, TechRepublic's vice president of community research projects, recently gave this presentation of TechRepublic's research methods and our latest research on project management. Download his PowerPoint presentation

Tech Republics Project Defintiion Template

Description: Meeting project deadlines is of utmost importance to a project management consultant, but proper planning can produce the right result. Download TechRepublic columnist Tom Mochal's project definition template to guide you through the planning stages…Download Now!   

Keep track of problems with project issues log – Tech Republic

Download this project issues log so that you can keep track of problems and make sure that they are resolved quickly—before they destroy your project.

Project change request form

If you're looking for a way to control scope creep in your projects, use this handy change request form.











Comparison of project management tools


Software Collaborative software Issue tracking system Scheduling Project Portfolio Management Resource Management Document Management Workflow system Reportingand Analyses
2-plan Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
24SevenOffice Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
5pm Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
AceProject Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes
Altova MetaTeam Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes
Apache Bloodhound Yes Yes No No No No Yes No
Apollo Yes No No No Yes No  UNK  UNK
Assembla Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
AtTask Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Basecamp Yes No No No Yes Yes No No
Binfire Yes No No Yes Yes Yes Yes No
Bontq Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes No No
BrightWork Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No No
Celoxis Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Central Desktop Yes Yes No No No Yes No No
Cerebro Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes
Clarizen Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
ClickHome Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
codeBeamer Yes Yes No No No Yes No No
Collabtive Yes No No No No Yes No Yes
CompuwareChangepoint Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Comindware Tracker Yes Yes No No No No Yes Yes
ConceptDraw Project No No No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Contactizer Yes No No No Yes No No No
Copper Project Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes
Deltek Open Plan Yes No Yes Yes Yes No No Yes
Deltek WelcomHome Yes Yes No Yes No Yes Yes Yes
DeskAway Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes No No
Doolphy Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes
dotProject Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes No Yes
DynaRoad No No Yes No Yes No Yes Yes
Easy projects Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No No Yes
Eclipse PPM software Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
EPM Live Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Endeavour Software Project Management Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No No
eGroupWare Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes No No
enQuire Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
FastTrack Schedule Yes No Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes
Feng Office Community Edition Yes No Yes Yes No Yes No No No No Yes No Yes No No Yes
FIT Issue Management Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No No
FogBugz Yes Yes Yes No Yes No Yes Yes
FusionForge Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes No
Ganttic Yes No Yes Yes Yes No No No
GanttProject No No Yes No Yes No No No
Gemini Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
GroveSite Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes No No Yes No No No Yes Yes No No
HP Project & Portfolio Software Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Huddle Yes No No No No Yes No No
Hyperoffice Yes No No No No Yes No No
iManageProject Yes No No No Yes Yes No No
InLoox Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes No Yes
in-Step Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
JIRA Yes Yes Yes No No No Yes Yes
Journyx Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No No
Kanban Tool Yes Yes Yes No No Yes Yes Yes
Kayako helpdesk software Yes Yes No No No Yes No No
KommandCore Yes No Yes No No Yes No No
KForge Yes Yes No No No Yes No No
KPlato No No Yes No Yes No No No
Launchpad Yes Yes No Yes No No No No
LibrePlan Yes No Yes No Yes No No Yes
LiquidPlanner Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
LisaProject No No Yes No Yes No No No
MacProject No No Yes No Yes No No No
MantisBT No Yes No No No No No No
MatchWare MindView 4 Business Edition Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes No No
Mavenlink Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes No No
Merlin Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes
Métier Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Microsoft Office Project Server Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Microsoft Project No No Yes No Yes No No Yes
Microsoft SharePoint Server Yes Yes Yes No No Yes Yes No
Microsoft Team Foundation Server Yes Yes Yes No No Yes Yes Yes
Milestones Professional No Yes Yes No No Yes No No
MindGenius Yes No Yes No Yes No No No
NetPoint No No Yes No Yes No No No
NetSuite Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes
MyWorkPLAN Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
O3spaces Yes No No No No Yes No No
OmniPlan No No Yes No Yes No No No
Onepoint Project Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes
OnTime Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Open Workbench No No Yes No Yes No No No
OpenERP Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
OpenProj No No Yes No Yes No No No
Oracle Primavera EPPM (Primavera P6) Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
phpGroupWare Yes Yes No Unknown Yes Yes No No
PHProjekt Yes Yes Yes No No No No No
Pivotal Tracker Yes Yes Yes No No Yes Yes Yes
Planbox Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No No
Plandora Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes
Planisware Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Planner Suite No No Yes Yes Yes Yes No No
PLANTA Project Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Project KickStart No No Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes
Project Team Builder Yes No Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes
ProjectLink Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Project-Open Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Projectplace Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No No
Projecturf Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No No
ProjektronBCS Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Proliance Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No No
Prolog Manager Yes Yes No Yes No Yes No No
QuickBase Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Rally Software Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Realisor Yes No Yes Yes Yes No No Yes
Redmine Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes No
SAP Business ByDesign Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Sciforma PSNext Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Severa Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Smartsheet Yes Yes No Yes No Yes No No
TACTIC Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
TaskJuggler Yes No Yes No Yes No No No
Teambox Yes Unknown Unknown Yes[23] Yes[5] Yes Unknown Unknown
Teamcenter Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No No
TeamDynamixHE Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
TeamLab Yes No Yes Yes No Yes No Yes
Teamwork Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Tenrox Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Tom's Planner Yes No Yes No No No No No
Trac Yes Yes No No No No Yes No
TrackerSuite.Net Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Traction TeamPage Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes No Yes
Trello Yes Unknown Unknown Unknown Unknown No Unknown Unknown
Ubidesk Yes Yes Yes No No Yes No No
VPMi Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No No No
Wayman Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
web2project Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes No Yes
WorkPLAN Enterprise Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Unknown Unknown
WorkZone Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Wrike Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No
Xplanner Yes No Yes No Yes No Unknown Unknown
Zoho Projects Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes





Risk Analysis

Risk analysis is the systematic study of uncertainties and risks we encounter in business, engineering, public policy, and even in our personal lives, if we are so inclined, as opposed to the unknown, which is typically un-chartered territory.  A risk according to Lewis (2011),”is anything that may happen that could create an adverse effect to your schedule, costs, quality, or scope” (p. 312).  Whereas, Secretary Rumsfeld suggests there are at least three types of unknows:

There are known knowns; there are things we know that we know.
There are known unknowns; that is to say, there are things that we now know we don't know.
But there are also unknown unknowns – there are things we do not know we don’t know.

United States Secretary of DefenseDonald Rumsfeld

Risk analysts; then,  seek to identify the risks, understand how and when they arise, estimate the impact, financial or otherwise, of adverse outcomes and prepare coping strategies. Risk managers start with risk analysis, then seek to take actions that will mitigate or hedge these risks.

Risk analysis and management is crucial for most institutions.   One of the roles of risk management in these firms is to quantify the financial risks involved in each investment, trading, or other business activity, and allocate a risk budget across these activities.  Banks in particular are required by their regulators to identify and quantify their risks, often computing measures such as Value at Risk (VaR), and ensure that they have adequate capital to maintain solvency should the worst  outcomes occur.

Quantitative Risk Analysis

Quantitative risk analysis is the practice of creating a mathematical model of a project or process that explicitly includes uncertain parameters and decision variables or parameters that we can control.  A quantitative risk model is used to calculate the impact of the uncertain parameters and the decisions we make on outcomes that we care about, such as profit and loss, investment returns, environmental consequences, and the like.  Such a model can help business decision makers understand the impact of uncertainty and the consequences of different decisions.

Risk Modeling and Simulation

One way to learn how to deal with uncertainty is to perform an experiment.  But often, it is too dangerous or expensive to perform an experiment in the real world, so we resort to a model.  With a model, we can simulate what would happen in the real world, and perform many experiments, such as subjecting a model airplane to various air currents and forces and learn how it behaves.  We can introduce uncertainty into our experiments using devices such as a coin toss, dice roll, or roulette wheel.  A single experiment that involves a coin toss may not tell us very much, but if we perform a simulation that consists of many experiments or trials, and collect statistics about the results, we can learn quite a lot.

If we have the skills and software tools needed to create a mathematical model of a project or process on a computer, we can perform a simulation with many trials in a very short time, and at very low cost.  With such advantages over experiments in the real world, it is no wonder that computer-based simulation has become so popular.  For business models, Microsoft Excel is an ideal tool for creating such a model, and simulation software such as Frontline Systems' Risk Solver Pro or Oracle’s Crystal Ball,  can be used to get maximum insight from the model.


Monte Carlo Simulation and Quantitative Risk Analysis

Named after the city in Monaco famed for its casinos and games of chance, Monte Carlo is a powerful mathematical method for conducting quantitative risk analysis.  Monte Carlo methods rely on random sampling.  The numbers from random sampling are plugged into a mathematical model and used to calculate outcomes of interest.  This process is repeated typically thousands of  times.  With the aid of software, we can obtain statistics and view charts and graphs of the results.  After

Monte Carlo simulation is especially helpful when there are several different sources of uncertainty that interact to produce an outcome.  For example, if we are  dealing with uncertain market demand, competitors' pricing, and variable production and raw materials costs at the same time, it can be very difficult to estimate the impacts of these factors on Net Profit.  Monte Carlo simulation can quickly analyze thousands of 'what-if' scenarios, often yielding surprising insights into what can go right, what can go wrong, and what we can do about it.







Creating a communications plan

Determine project stakeholders

There can be many types of customers, users, vendors, managers, and stakeholders. First, determine what people or groups of people you want to include in the Communications Plan.


Determine the communication needs of each stakeholder

For each of the stakeholders identified above, determine their communication needs. For instance, certain managers will need ongoing status information. Steering committee members need ongoing status reports, plus a dialog on strategy and vision. Your users might need awareness communication, mentoring, question-and-answer sheets, promotional information to build enthusiasm, etc. Especially on large projects, the project team should be creative in determining how, what, to whom, where, and how frequently the communication takes place.


Determine how to fulfill the communication needs of each stakeholder

Project communication can take many shapes and forms. In this step, brainstorm how you will fulfill the communication needs for each stakeholder. When possible, look for types of communication that can cover more than one stakeholder's needs.


Mandatory: These types of communication are required by your company, your industry, or by law. This information is pushed to recipients. The following are some examples of this type of communication:

·         Project status reports

·         Regular status updates via voicemail

·         Status meetings

·         Meetings with steering committee

·         Regular conference calls and videoconferences with remote stakeholders

·         Government-required reports and other information

·         Financial reporting, such as budget vs. actuals, or any other required financial information


Informational: This is information that people want to know or that they may need to know to do their jobs. This information is made available for people to read but requires them to take the initiative or pull the communication for themselves. Following are some examples:

·         Awareness-building sessions that people are invited to attend (These are not meant as training, just to build awareness of the project.)

·         Project paper-based deliverables placed in a common repository, directory, or library that people can access

·         Project information available on a Web site


Marketing: These forms of communication are designed to build buy-in and enthusiasm for the project and its deliverables. This information is also pushed to the recipients. Here are some examples:

·         Project newsletters, with positive marketing spin

·         Meeting one-on-one with key stakeholders on an ongoing basis

·         Traveling road shows to various locations and departments to explain the project and its benefits

·         Testimonials from others about the value that was provided

·         Contests with simple prizes to build excitement

·         Project acronyms and slogans to portray positive images of the project

·         Project countdown until live date

·         Informal (but purposeful) walking around to "talk up" the project to team members, users, and stakeholders

·         Celebrations to bring visibility to the completion of major milestones

·         Project memorabilia with project name or image portrayed, such as pins, pencils, Frisbees, cups, T-shirts, etc.

·         Publicizing accomplishments


Determine the effort required

Determine how much effort is required for each of the communication ideas the project team has come up with. If the communication is ongoing, estimate the effort over a one-month period. For instance, a status report might only take one hour to create, but it might be needed twice a month. Then, of course, the total effort would be two hours.


Prioritize the communication options

Some communication activities provide more value than others. In a previous exercise, you brainstormed lists of communication options. Now you need to prioritize the items to determine which provide the most value for the least cost. If a communication activity takes a lot of time and provides little or marginal communication value, it should be discarded. If a communication option takes little effort and provides a lot of value, it should be included in the final Communication Plan. Of course, if a communication activity is mandatory, it should be included no matter what the cost. If a mandatory activity is time-consuming, you may be able to negotiate with the stakeholders to find a less-intensive alternative.

ABC Project

Communication Plan



Target Audience(s)

Delivery Method

Delivery Frequency

Who Responsible?

Status Reports


Steering Committee

Paper Status Report Template e-mailed to audience


Project Manager

Local Awareness-Building Sessions
Inform people of the project and the deliverables that will affect them.


Local user community

Stand-up presentations

Schedule twice weekly until all users covered.

Lead Analyst

Remote Awareness-Building Sessions
Inform people of the project and the deliverables that will affect them.


Remote user community

Webcast presentations

Hold sessions three times a week until all users covered.

Lead Analyst

Project Pins
Pins will be given out to all people attending the awareness presentations to build enthusiasm and brand image.


All users, customers, and stakeholders

Hand out to those that attend the awareness presentations.

Send pin in intercompany mail to those that attend Webcasts.


Same frequency as awareness sessions  




Terry Allen – Project Administrator






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