Problem Solving Model Overview  | MARKETING CONCEPTS (ppt 2MB) |

















NOTE:  Suggest you read - Reading Practices  - by Peter Denning, before you tackle the handouts, and to help you read faster and more effectively. (Needs Adobe Acrobat reader.)
















Session One:  Total Quality Management



Total quality management ("TQM") is a program of continuous improvement of service quality. It is not a static goal to be achieved. Rather, it is an ongoing process of evolution and affirmative change to meet variable market and client expectations. Over the past few years TQM has ceased to be simply the latest "buzzword" in a long line of management fads and has gained the respect of successful businesses (both large and small) as a necessary component of their strategic planning.

Making Customers Feel Six Sigma - Globalization and instant access to information, products and services have changed the way our customers conduct business — old business models no longer work. Today's competitive environment leaves no room for error. We must delight our customers and relentlessly look for new ways to exceed their expectations. This is why Six Sigma Quality has become a part of our culture


TQM has been adapted by schools and churches as well as corporations. The dialectic process has served the purposes of contemporary "change agents" in every sector of society as well as around the world. It has been used to change individual minds and attitudes as well as communities and nations. To its globalist leaders, it's the primary tool for developing compliant, politically correct servants of the 21st Century community.

TQM - This topic describes the history and basic tenets of Total Quality Management (TQM), explores the way it operates and some of its advantages and disadvantages, and concludes with a comparison of TQM and the authoritative management style. Dojang owners may find some of the principles of TQM useful in dojang management.

A Simplified TQM Diagnostic Model - These pages are designed for Leaders and Managers who want to: Repair, jump-start or diagnose problems in existing TQM initiatives, or Design and implement their own less expensive and culturally tuned TQM, or Become competent internal consultants to their company's TQM system.

Six Sigma - Six Sigma stands for Six Standard Deviations (Sigma is the Greek letter used to represent standard deviation in statistics) from mean. Six Sigma methodology provides the techniques and tools to improve the capability and reduce the defects in any process.

TQM Tutorial - Total Quality Management (TQM), a buzzword phrase of the 1980's, has been killed and resurrected on a number of occasions. The concept and principles, though simple seem to be creeping back into existence by "bits and pieces" through the evolution of the ISO9001 Management Quality System standard. Companies who have implemented TQM include Ford Motor Company, Phillips Semiconductor, SGL Carbon, Motorola and Toyota Motor Company.

The latest changes coming up for the ISO 9001:2000 standard’s "Process Model" seem to complete the embodiment. TQM is the concept that quality can be managed and that it is a process. The following information is provided to give an understanding of the key elements of this process.

Applying Total Quality Management In Academics
The concept of TQM is applicable to academics. Many educators believe that the Deming's concept of TQM provides guiding principles for needed educational reform. This article identifies how the "Four Pillars of Total Quality Management" apply to education. From Dheeraj Mehrotra and iSixSigma.

Improving Financial Services Through TQM: A Case Study
A young, rapidly expanding company in the financial services sector with no previous experience with Total Quality Management takes its first steps toward TQM. And it immediately learns the value of a formal program to improve quality. From Niraj Goyal and Lalitha Bhatia.

Introduction and Implementation of Total Quality Management (TQM)
Total Quality Management, TQM, is a method by which management and employees can become involved in the continuous improvement of the production of goods and services. It is a combination of quality and management tools aimed at increasing business and reducing losses due to wasteful practices. From Khurram Hashmi.

Introduction to Rapid TQM Change
This module describes how to make rapid but lasting change. From Farrokh Alemi at George Mason University.

Introduction to TQM Change Cycles
This module describes the TQM implementation process, lists six steps of the TQM process, explains how some TQM tools are used and discusses the importance of using media to promote TQM initiatives. From Farrokh Alemi at George Mason University.

Overcoming The Improvement Paradox
Why most improvement programs end in failure and what you can do to build a sustainable process improvement program. (PDF file). From Keating et al., MIT.

Reducing IT User Downtime Using TQM – a Case Study
This IT case study was done during the implementation of TQM in a financial services company with several hundred computers and computer users in multiple locations throughout India. The results have widespread applicability. From Niraj Goyal.

The Application of TQM Tools in a Strategic Business Plan
Successful combination of TQM tools (including Voice of the Customer, Concept Engineering, Solution Planning Matrix, Hoshin Management and so on) and application to specific steps within the business plan development. From The Center for Quality of Management Journal.

The Eight Elements Of TQM
Eight elements are key in ensuring the success of TQM in an organization. From Nayantara Padhi and iSixSigma.


What is TQM Concept in Japan?

TQM, also known as Total Quality Control (TQC), is a management tool for improving total performance. TQC means organized Kaizen activities involving everyone in a company – managers and workers – in a totally systemic and integrated effort toward improving performance at every level. It is to lead to increased customer satisfaction through satisfying such corporate cross-functional goals as quality, cost, scheduling, manpower development, and new product development.




The Future of Work - In May of 2000, management guru Tom Peters declared in Time magazine that "90% of white-collar jobs in the U.S. will be either destroyed or altered beyond recognition in the next 10 to 15 years." Indeed, the end of the last millenium and the beginning of this one saw an unprecedented technology-driven upsurge in mergers, partnerships, and shake-outs, the consolidation of international trade regions, and new technologies that erase the boundaries that divide a global workforce

Total Quality Management in Asia -The practice of Total Quality Management has had a chequered introduction into Asia. Juran and Deming and their original formulations of course were ignored in the land of it's origination before Japanese business imported the ideas and made them work in Japan from two decades ago. Names like Ishikawa became well known in developing TQM. Since then, TQM has been offered as the reason for the success of Japanese business by many observers, and Japanese versions of TQM have been shipped back not only to the US and the Americas, but also Europe

Six Sigma in Business - Even though Six Sigma was initially implemented at Motorola to improve the manufacturing process, all types of businesses can profit from implementing Six Sigma. Businesses in various industry segments such as Services industry (Example: Call Centers, Insurance, Financial/Investment Services), Ecommerce industry (Example: B2B/B2C websites), Education can definitely use Six Sigma principles to achieve higher quality. Many big businesses such as GE and Motorola have successfully implemented Six Sigma but the adaptation by smaller businesses has been very slow

EO Perspective: Changing for the 1990's

Customer Satisfaction - Customer is defined as anyone who receives that which is produced by the individual or organization that has value. Customer expectations are continuously increasing. Brand loyalty is a thing of the past. Customers seek out products and producers that are best able to satisfy their requirements. A product does not need to be rated highest by customers on all dimensions, only on those they think are important

TQM, CQM, Mutual Learning and Integration Management

Customer Loyalty - "It takes a lot less money to increase your retention of current customers than to find new ones-but I know I don't give it as much effort as I should because it does take a lot of energy and effort!"

A Conversation About Conversations:Analog Devices CEO on Building High Performance Organizations

Power-Up Your Organization for Maximum Retention -Building loyal customers with service quality is a common competitive strategy for business success in the 1990's. Yet why is it we get service that is often less than satisfactory? Why don't some people seem to care? What really builds customer loyalty and maintains profitability? The answer is simple, obvious, and manageable. Let's illustrate with a few simple stories:

How Total Quality Took Root at Bose  

Give An Angry Customer Even More Than They Asked For - In late July, 1997 my husband, Stephen and I parted with $250.00 of hard-earned cash to get our home air ducts cleaned. Our house was fifteen years old and the heating and ventilating ducts had never been serviced. It had been on the "to-do" list since we purchased the house. When we stumbled across a $50.00 off coupon in Clipper Magazine for a local cleaning service, "Pro Clean Environmental Services," we scheduled the work.

Quality: A Personal Responsibility for Executives

The Value of Customer Satisfaction - What is the connection between customer satisfaction and the bottom line?

Making Customer Lifecycle Management a Mass-Market Reality - Some otherwise valuable management tools ultimately fail for lack of a common definition: trying to be ‘all things to all men’, they end up failing to deliver against the high expectations of the market and the overblown promises of over-optimistic vendors.

Real Life Stranger than Fiction: Breakthrough Business Ideas for New Product Development  

Improving Customer Satisfaction Once a Customer Satisfaction Measurement Program Is in Place - Customer satisfaction research is not an end unto itself. The purpose, of course, in measuring customer satisfaction is to see where a company stands in this regard in the eyes of its customers, thereby enabling service and product improvements which will lead to higher satisfaction levels. The research is just one component in the quest to improve customer satisfaction. There are many others, including:

Getting the Company from Where It Is to Where It Isn't





Team Building in Asia - It is now over 10 years since we started introducing Margerison-McCann Team Management Systems principles into Asian organizations. Before that, the first 10 years were spent on research with many hundreds of managers worldwide, with a good proportion from Singapore and Malaysia, and early applications were with companies in the UK, Europe and Australia, with the United States following soon after

Concept Engineering: A CEO Roundtable Report

Explanation of a process planning sheet - A practical guide for writing in rhetorical modes.

Proactively Identifying Business Opportunities in Health Care by Applying Concept Engineering

Process analysis checklist - The activity of inspecting processes for unexpected behavior involves many detailed actions. The checklist below contains questions you may wish to ask about each process. The use of such a checklist can increase the reliability of your inspection procedure.

Why Bother Using VOC?

 Business Process Analysis - The successful use of Internet technology can significantly reduce costs and improve revenues. It all starts with getting a thorough understanding of the business process so that the technology can be applied where it matters most

Business Process Analysis - An operation is composed of processes...

A Polaroid Notebook: Concept Engineering

Process Analysis Methodology - Detailed process analysis allows the Exigen and customer team to understand the correlation between processes, strategic objectives, technology, operations leaks, and costs/risks.

Concept Engineering: Is It Worth the TIME?


MARKEM Corporation's Concept Engineering Quasar Project


Mutual Learning: Industry/Academia Collaboration for Improved Product Development


How Bose Corporation Applied Concept Engineering to a Service


Application of Concept Engineering on the Bose Enchilada Project


Real Life Stranger than Fiction: Breakthrough Business Ideas for New Product Development


Escaping From the Box: Using a New Process Model to Support Participation and Improve Coordination


Listening for New Products: The Conversations of Product Development


Self-Generated Competitive Innovation with the Language-Action Approach


Emotions: At the Heart of Business Practice


Using the Methods of Fernando Flores


A Conversation About Conversations: Analog Devices CEO on Building High Performance Organizations


Language For Action: New Concepts to Address Soft Side Management Issues


Understanding Unclear Situations and Each Other Using The Language Processing Method





Quality Management Tools - Quality Management Plans - A Quality Management Plan documents how an organization will plan, implement, and assess the effectiveness of its quality assurance and quality control operations. Specifically, it describes how an organization structures its quality system, the quality policies and procedures, areas of application, and roles, responsibilities, and authorities. The elements of a quality system are documented in a Quality Management Plan. Both EPA organizations and organizations performing data collection activities funded by EPA are required to document their quality systems

Total Quality Management: Can It Be Applied to Medicine?- The phrase “managed care” is to American medicine in the 1990s what the term “quality” was to the auto industry during the 1980s. The quality principles that William Edwards Deming and Joseph Juran taught the Japanese in the 1950s have been transformed into a quasi-religion known as Total Quality Management (TQM) that is now being applied to virtually every product and service

TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT AND REINVENTING GOVERNMENT- TQM is a new paradigm of management! TQM is both a philosophy and methodology for managing organizations. TQM includes a set of principles, tools, and procedures that provide guidance in the practical affairs of running an organization. TQM involves all members of the organization in controlling and continuously improving how work is done. Government agencies that use TQM agree that it is fundamentally different from traditional management.

TQM, ISO 9000, Six Sigma: Do Process Management Programs Discourage Innovation?- Proof that the premier process management program in American business has crossed over into mainstream consciousness is that a rock band in Northern Kentucky calls itself 6 Sigma. Even those who know more about frets than fractions can explain that Six Sigma is a way of increasing efficiency. A less-alliterative management tool, ISO 9000, also has many fervent adherents but, alas, no rock

Great Ideas for Teaching Accounting Great Ideas for Teaching Accounting offers us as accounting professors the opportunity to Cost Variance Analysis. Using TQM in Teaching Managerial Accounting. Real Life Budgeting

Managerial Accounting standard costs for an operation and use variance analysis for cost financial information for analysis and interpretation by managers. To this end, managerial accounting is a process

Managerial Accounting [ACCT 781] Managerial Accounting. [ACCT 781] School of Business. The University of South Dakota. Vermillion, South Dakota. COURSE CONTENT. Financial Accounting. Management Planning. Management Control. Quantitative Methods

Financial and Managerial Accounting 5e - PowerPoint Slides - Manufacturing Overhead Variance Analysis Textbook Site for: Financial and Managerial Accounting, Seventh Edition. Belverd D. Needles, Jr., DePaul University. Marian Powers, Northwestern University. Sherry K. Mills, New Mexico State University. Henry R.

Financial and Managerial Accounting 5e - PowerPoint Slides - Variance Analysis Textbook Site for: Financial and Managerial Accounting, Seventh Edition. Belverd D. Needles, Jr., DePaul University. Marian Powers, Northwestern University. Sherry K. Mills, New Mexico State University. Henry R.

Great Ideas - COST VARIANCE ANALYSIS Alice M. Handlang, Northwestern State University of Louisiana. = Management Accounting Idea = COST VARIANCE ANALYSIS hint for teaching managerial and cost accounting is in the cost variance analysis area. When determining the large writing. Thus, in the variance analysis diagram, if the dollar Standard costing & variance analysis. Acc 208: Managerial Accounting for Decision Making and importance of standard costs and variance analysis. Interpret cost variances for material

Getting the Company from Where It Is to Where It Isn't - On October 15, 2001, Gary Burchill and Chase Craig of the CQM interviewed Sherwin Greenblatt and Joseph Veranth of Bose. In the interview, Greenblatt and Veranth discussed Bose’s use of CQM’s Mastering Business Complexity (MBC) skills. They describe their success in using the Four Gears for getting organizational alignment and in using SCORE to understand and plan high risk opportunities.

Applying 7-Steps as a Personal PDCA Method

Controlling the Complexity Inherent in New Product Line Development - In his interview, Doug particularly emphasizes the benefits of SCORE to anticipate opportunities and difficulties in a large, cross-functional project with major business potential. He also discusses use of the causal loop component of ARMED to plan, for example, marketing strategy. He mentions use of the Enterprise Model to make sure the organization has the necessary capabilities to deal with all the issues resulting from the project.

Reflecting on Obstacles to Innovation — An Example of Using Causal Loops - The business people participating in the meeting all had some familiarity with causal loop diagramming, having used the tool or at least having learned about its use (for instance, in an CQM MBC course1). The meeting offered an opportunity to improve causal loop diagramming skill while focusing on a kind of complex, somewhat intangible, problem that is of interest to many (e.g., innovation) and for which causal loops are a particularly useful tool:

Dealing with Complexity Across Geography and Business Lines - In the interview, Ms. Sindell provides considerable insight into application of the Enterprise Model and describes use of the ARMED process to help with complex decisions. She also notes components of the SCORE process Haemonetics has used to date.


Kaizen at Hill-Rom

Planning Concurrency and Managing Iteration in Projects


A Written Example of "A-Delta-T"


Improving Design Productivity Through Design Reuse




Key Findings on Cycle Time Reduction from the Cincinnati Chapter's Research Committee

Introduction and Implementation of Total Quality Management (TQM) - Total Quality Management is a management approach that originated in the 1950's and has steadily become more popular since the early 1980's. Total Quality is a description of the culture, attitude and organization of a company that strives to provide customers with products and services that satisfy their needs

Leadership and Cycle Time Reduction: Sustained Cycle Time Reduction Efforts Require Top Management Leadership

Total quality management: aspects of implementation and performance- Doctoral Thesis - 

Observations from the 1997-98 CQM Study Group on Cycle Time Reduction

Issues Surrounding the Implementation of TQM: The Scottish Experience - This paper considers the extent to which the process of Total Quality Management (TQM) implementation is managed successfully in Scottish companies, and explores what appear from the current literature on TQM to be some of the most important issues influencing the outcome of this process. We analyse and interpret the results of a questionnaire survey completed by 150 companies with bases in Scotland

Managing the Climate of a TQM Organization

TQM Pays Off - What's as dead as a pet rock?" quizzes John A. Byrne in June's Business Week. "Little surprise here: It's total quality management." In his "Commentary" column, the magazine's senior writer rated TQM among a chorus line of more recent management theories and found it, like all the others, just another faded fad of the month.

The Superior Stock Market Performance of a TQM Portfolio  

TQM - Aspects of Implementation - TQM is the abbreviation of 'Total Quality Management'. However, the word TOM often leads to misunderstanding to many companies which think that TQM is only concerned with the quality of products or services they offer to their customers. Actually this is partly true because the utmost target of TQM is to satisfy customers. Hence TQM in this sense means the quality of management in the organization that every body in the organization must be concerned with, in order to make good products or services according to customers' requirements, both internal and external.

TQM And Organizational Change And Development - While Total Quality Management has proven to be an effective process for improving organizational functioning, its value can only be assured through a comprehensive and well­thought­out implementation process. The purpose of this chapter is to outline key aspects of implementation of large­scale organizational change which may enable a practitioner to more thoughtfully and successfully implement TQM.

The role of organizational climate in the implementation of Total Quality Management - Total Quality Management (TQM) provides a paradigm shift in management philosophy for improving organizational effectiveness (Byrne, 1992; Gagne, 1983; Lowe and Masseo, 1986). TQM focuses the efforts of all members of the organization to continuously improve all organizational processes and increase value to customers, while relying upon a clear vision of the organization's purpose.

Systemic Approach to Management: TQM and Planning

TQM Theory: Opportunities and Strategies - Over the last few years, Total Quality Management (TQM) has evolved from a topic of discussion in Operations Management (OM) into one of the central themes of operations improvement.

Breakthrough and Continuous Improvement in Research and Development --- An Essay

 TQM Implementation in State Departments of Transportation: View from the Firing Line - This paper discusses the results of a 1994–95 survey of 146 state departments of transportation mid-level managers from 26 states regarding their perceptions of the progress and problems associated with TQM implementation in their departments. Managers' own familiarity with TQM principles is contrasted with their perceptions of their peers', their subordinates', and their supervisors' familiarity with TQM principles.

Thoughts on Goals and Metrics

Implementing total quality management in Australian health care organizations - This thesis focuses on the implementation of TQM in professional organizations, primarily in the health care sector. The progress and process of implementation of TQM was assessed in 30 organizations (21 hospitals and 9 other professional organizations) over a period of approximately two years. Primary data approaches were interviews with senior managers and selected surveying.

A World Shaped by Choice ; Peter Senge; A systems view of the Industrial and Technological Ages and the importance of making choices that affect the system positively as exemplified in The Age of Living Systems section. Nov 1, 2002

Communities of Leaders and Learners ; Peter Senge; A brief article describing the three types of leadership and three interrelated activities: research, capacity building, and practice. Nov 1, 2002

Communities of Leaders or No Leadership at All ; Senge, Kaeufer; Types of leadership; redefining leadership; the challenges of leadership. Nov 8, 2002

Leadership in Living Organizations ; Peter Senge; Another insightful view of leadership and its natural emergence in companies. Oct 28, 2002

Leading Learning Organizations ; Peter Senge; In this article, Peter discusses the three types of leadership [available but not always recognized] in organizations and the reasons why change does not necessarily need to happen from the top down. Oct 25, 2002

Natural Capitalism Primer ; Peter Senge, Don Seville, Amory Lovins. Chris Mielspach ; A systems view of the Natural Capitalism principles and how to most effectively apply them Aug 28, 2002

Personal Transformation ; Peter Senge; Building learning organizations requires personal transformations or basic shifts in how we think and interact. As W. Edwards Deming says, nothing happens without "personal transformation." And the only safe space to allow for this transformation is a learning community. But at the heart of any serious effort to alter how we operate lies a concern with three dysfunctions of our culture: fragmentation, competition, and reactiveness. Feb 19, 2004

Systems Change in Education ; Peter Senge; Observations on the implications of systems thinking for learning, teaching, and the reformation of education. Nov 12, 2002

The Academy as a Learning Community: Contradiction in Terms or Realizable Future? ; Peter Senge; Universities and colleges have become the preeminent knowing institutions in a world that increasingly favors learning institutions. This article presents tools and methods to counteract that. Nov 12, 2002

The Ecology of Leadership ; Peter Senge; To sustain change -- particularly change requiring new organizational capabilities and collective intelligence -- senior executives must do two things: develop personal learning strategies, and understand the context in which they work. This article describes this "ecology of leadership".












ISO 9000

Baldrige Quality Criteria














Traditional Quality Tools

Flow Chart


Pareto Chart

Scatter Diagram

Cause & Effect Diagram

Statistical Process Control






Misc Problem Solving Tools

Affinity Diagram
Bar Chart
Cause Effect
Check Sheets
Control Chart
Criteria Matrix
Decision Tree
Delphi Method
False Rules
Five Forces - Porter
Flow Chart
Following the Rules
Force Field
Influence Diagram
Line Graph
Metaphorical Thinking
Mind Mapping, Cognitive Map, Concept Map
Pareto Chart
Pie Chart
Random Word Generation
Run Chart
Scatter Diagram
Systems Diagram
Value Analysis


Management Tools

Supply Chain Management
Strategic Planning
Strategic Alliances
Six Sigma
Scenario and Contingency Planning
Price Optimization Models
Open-Market Innovation
Mission and Vision Statements
Mass Customization
Loyalty Management
Knowledge Management
Growth Strategies
Economic Value-Added Analysis
Customer Segmentation
Core Competencies
Change Management Programs
Business Process Reengineering
Balanced Scorecard
Activity-Based Management







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Last modified: July 26, 2009